The Hip

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

– See: – El Escorial Revisited: Revised Criteria for the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – Disorders of Nerves: – Anterior Horn Cell Disorders: – ALS Society Homepage – Discussion: – amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a syndrome characterized by both upper and lower motor neuron disease; – destruction of anterior horn cells & descending corticospinal tracts; … Read more

Amoxicillin/K+ & Clavulic acid/Augmentin

– See: penicillin family – Discussion: – combination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin (augmentin – 250 or 500 mg of amoxicillin plus 125 mg of clavulanic acid) provides oral preparation with enhanced activity against beta-lactamase- producing strains of Staph, Branhamella catarrhalis, H. influenza, N gonorrhoeae, and bacteroides; – oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (every … Read more

Aldolase: 1.5 -12.0 micro / lit

requires about 5 ml of venous blood, pt NPO for AM blood draw. Increased: Dermatomyositis, Polymyositis, Limb girdle muscular dystrophy Chronic hepatitis, Portal cirrhosis, Obstructive jaundice (See bilirubin) Gangrene, Prostate tumors (PSA), Trichinosis, Liver mets, blood dyscrasias, delirium tremens, Burns, 20% of cancer pts. – Normal Values – Poliomyelitis, Myasthenia gravis, Multiple sclerosis, Neurogenic musclee … Read more

Zone II Flexor Injuries

    – Discussion: – see flexor tendon repair     – see FDP lacerations: FDS and FDP     – almost all tendon injuries in zone 2 are due to lacerations; – this is where 2 tendons enter fibro-osseuous tunnel at mid-palm level; – once the FDS and FDP tendons enter flexor tendon sheath, the FDS separates into 2 … Read more

Aortic Regurgitation

* Physical Exam: (heard best if pt. sits up, leans forward, & exhale) Early Diastolic (decrescendo) murmur. Mid Systolic Ejection Murmur (Austin Flint) S3 gallop (competes w/ diastolic murmur); widened pulse pressure Etiology: Congenital (bicuspid valves) Rheumatic hrt, Endocarditis VSD; Sequelae: Angina, LVH, CHF, DOE, orthopnea, PND; small increase in After-Load may cause large increase … Read more

Zone 1 Flexor Injuries

– See:       – FDP Avulsion       – FDP Lacerations       – tendon pull thru technique         – Anatomy:       – in zone 1, FDP has emerged from between & beneath decussating FDS and travels to its insertion in the distal phalanx;       – zone 1 contains: A4, C3, … Read more

Zone III

– Discussion:     – extends from base of palm or distal end of transverse retinacular ligament to transverse crease in the palm;           – extends just proximal to the IP joint and to the MP joint;     – in this region tendons are essentially free of a tendon sheath … Read more