Ortho Oracle - orthopaedic operative atlas

Type III Radial Head Fracture

– Discussion: – comminuted fractures of the entire head; – classification: – type A: – fracture of the entire radial neck, with the head completely displaced from the shaft; – type B: – articular fracture involving the entire head, which consists of more than two large fragments; – each fragment is completely displaced from the … Read more

Upper Extremity Prosthetics

– Terminal Devices:     – Functional Hooks vs. Cosmetic Hands;     – Hooks: Voluntary opening vs closing:        – voluntary opening:           – more popular & are recognized by their numbers of rubber bands (# is proportional to pinch strength, w/ 3 bands equal to about   … Read more

Undisplaced Olecranon Frx

– Definition:      – displacement of less than 2 mm;      – no increase in minimal degree of separation of 90 deg flexion of elbow;      – usually frx gaps dorsally, and some separation of fragments occurs, which leads to joint incongruity;            – dorsal gapping w/ displacement of … Read more

Type III Supracondylar Frx

– Discussion:     – posterior cortex is disrupted w/ no cortical contact;     – distal fragment is displaced posteriorly and proximally (by pull of triceps);     – w/ medial displacement, the medial periosteal hinge is intact;     – w/ lateral displacement, the lateral periosteal hinge is intact; – Physical Exam:   … Read more

Type II Supracondylar Frx

– Discussion:     – if the frx needs a reduction, then the frx is not a type I but a type II;     – posterior cortex remains intact, making it a greenstick frx;     – technically a type II frx implies posterior displacement, but frequently there will also be medial impaction w/ … Read more

Type III Olecranon Frx

– Discussion:         – frx is displaced & forearm is unstable in relation to humerus;         – this injury is really a fracture-dislocation;         – Avulsion Fracture         – Comminuted Fractures         – Distal Olecranon Fracture:         … Read more

Type II Olecranon Frx

– Discussion:     – displaced, stable frx;     – frx fragments are displaced > 2-3 mm, but collateral ligaments are intact;     – frx may be non-comminuted (Type IIA) or comminuted (Type IIB).     – no sign of subluxation; – Non Operative Treatment:     – immobilized in mid flexion, these … Read more

Type I Radial Head Fracture

– Discussion:     – fissure or margin sector fracture w/ displacement less than 2 mm;     – type I fractures may be difficult to identify;     – fat pads are intracapsular but extrasynovial;     – anterior fat pad is normally visible anterioir to coronoid fossa;     – posterior fat pad … Read more