Ortho Oracle - orthopaedic operative atlas

Lumbar Spine Online Textbook

Editor: Scott D. Boden, MD A truly global perspective on the lumbar spine with contributions from over 200 international experts. The International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine and Data Trace Internet Publishing, LLC are pleased to present the Lumbar Spine Online Textbook. This work is being hosted on the world renowned Wheeless’ … Read more

Section 2, Chapter 2: The Intervertebral Disc: Function and Degradation

Hardeep Singh and Isaac L. Moss INTRODUCTION The axial spine is separated into three regions: cervical, thoracic, and lumbar which are comprised of 7, 12, and 5 vertebrae, respectively.1 The intervertebral disc (IVD) separates each vertebra except C1-C2. Three articulations are present at each level consisting of two facet joints formed from the articulation of … Read more

Section 2, Chapter 4: Pain Generators and Pathways of Degenerative Disc Disease

Seiji Ohtori, Yasuchika Aoki and Sumihisa Orita Specimens from humans and animal models are known to have revealed sensory innervation of lumbar intervertebral discs and sensory nerve ingrowth into the inner layer of intervertebral discs under painful conditions. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukins induce this abnormal nerve ingrowth. Nerve growth factor … Read more