Section 19, Chapter 5: Postoperative Spondylodiscitis

Section 19, Chapter 5: Postoperative Spondylodiscitis

Section 19, Chapter 5: Postoperative Spondylodiscitis Kenneth Nwosu and Christopher M. Bono INTRODUCTION Spontaneous spondylodiscitis, or a primary infection of the nucleus pulposus with secondary involvement of the cartilaginous endplate and vertebral bone, was initially described by Ghormley et al. in 1940.1 However, it was not until the 1950’s when it was first documented as…

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Section 19, Chapter 4: High-grade Spondylolisthesis: Pediatric and Adults

Section 19, Chapter 4: High-grade Spondylolisthesis: Pediatric and Adults

Section 19, Chapter 4: High-grade Spondylolisthesis: Pediatric and Adults Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Siddharth Aiyer, and Rishi Mugesh Kanna INTRODUCTION Management options in spondylolisthesis vary with the etiology, morphology, grade of slip and severity of dysplasia at the affected segment. While the treatment options are well defined in most situations, the optimal management of high grade spondylo…

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Section 17, Chapter 9: Gunshot Injuries to the Lumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 9: Gunshot Injuries to the Lumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 9: Gunshot Injuries to the Lumbar Spine Adriaan Hendrik Botha and Robert N. Dunn CORE CURRICULUM Introduction What is the incidence of gunshot injuries to the spine? What is the epidemiology of gunshot injuries to the lumbar spine? What are the cost implications of these injuries? How were these injuries managed previously?…

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Section 19, Chapter 3: De Novo Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

Section 19, Chapter 3: De Novo Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis

Section 19, Chapter 3: De Novo Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis Jose Antonio Umali and Ashish Diwan INTRODUCTION De Novo or spontaneous or primary pyogenic spondylodiscitis is an infection affecting both the vertebral body and intervertebral disc of the spine due to bacterial pathogens. Spontaneous pyogenic spondylodiscitis is caused by hematogenous spread secondary to bacteremia from integumentary, respiratory,…

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Section 17, Chapter 6: Percutaneous Cement Augmentation in Osteoporotic Fractures of the Thoracolumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 6: Percutaneous Cement Augmentation in Osteoporotic Fractures of the Thoracolumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 6: Percutaneous Cement Augmentation in Osteoporotic Fractures of the Thoracolumbar Spine Thomas Zweig and Ulrich Berlemann INTRODUCTION According to the United Nation’s World Health Organization (WHO), osteoporosis is among the ten most important “world diseases.” The extent of this problem is not only due to fractures of the peripheral skeletal system (neck…

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Section 11, Chapter 8: Pedicle Screw Fixation and Design

Section 11, Chapter 8: Pedicle Screw Fixation and Design

Section 11, Chapter 8: Pedicle Screw Fixation and Design Helton Defino, Fabio Galbusera, Hans-Joachim Wilke HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Pedicle screw fixation represents a landmark in the field of spinal surgery. In view of the biomechanical advantages of pedicular fixation systems, which provide more tridimensional stability to the vertebral segment with a small area of instrumentation, even…

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Section 17, Chapter 7: Posttraumatic Changes of the Intervertebral Disc

Section 17, Chapter 7: Posttraumatic Changes of the Intervertebral Disc

  Section 17, Chapter 7: Posttraumatic Changes of the Intervertebral Disc Daniel Haschtmann and Stefan Dudli INTRODUCTION Until now, the question whether spine trauma in the specific case is associated with damage of the intervertebral disc that ultimately leads to organ degeneration, remains controversial. There are conflicting data in clinical as well as in experimental…

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Section 9, Chapter 8: Osteotomies for Rigid Spinal Deformity: Evaluation, Indications and Techniques

Section 9, Chapter 8: Osteotomies for Rigid Spinal Deformity: Evaluation, Indications and Techniques

Section 9, Chapter 8: Osteotomies for Rigid Spinal Deformity: Evaluation, Indications and Techniques Lawrence G. Lenke and Melvin C. Makhni INTRODUCTION Management of rigid spinal deformities is complex, technically demanding, and can be fraught with significant complications. Many spinal deformities can be managed without osteotomies, particularly primary deformities without congenital abnormalities. However, patients with severe…

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Section 19, Chapter 1: Infections of the Spine

Section 19, Chapter 1: Infections of the Spine

Section 19, Chapter 1: Infections of the Spine Harold I. Salmons, Jeffrey Ta, Hamadi Murphy, Arjun Sebastian, Kris Radcliff, Alex Vaccaro INTRODUCTION Spinal infections involve pyogenic or granulomatous infections of the vertebral column, intervertebral discs, the dural sac or the epidural space. Infections of the spine can take the form of a primary infection of…

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Section 17, Chapter 8: Sports Injuries of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 8: Sports Injuries of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

Section 17, Chapter 8: Sports Injuries of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Christoph E. Albers and Lorin M. Benneker INTRODUCTION Reportedly, nine to fifteen percent of sports injuries affect the spinal column.1-3 The majority of these injuries are benign myofascial strains responding well to physical therapy without mid- or long-term impact on athletic performance. However,…

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