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Upper Extremity Arteriogram

- Discussion:
    - it is important that the injection site be at distance proximal to site of injury;
         - if this cannot be performed w/ ease, retrograde axillosubclavian technique should be utilized;
    - insertion of needle into brachial artery is facilitated by immobilizing artery against humerus;
    - because of the size of the artery, its important to stabilize position of needle during the rapid hand injection;
    - complications:
         - axillary artery is enclosed w/ axillary vein and multiple nerves in a relatively inelastic neurovascular bundle;
         - relatively small amounts of bleeding within the sheath may cause nerve compression syndrome;
         - thrombus may be extracted using a balloon catheter

  An Experience with Upper-Extremity Vascular Trauma.

  Year Book: Upper Extremity Arterial Injury in Athletes.

  Year Book: Management of Arm Arterial Injuries.