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Hyperflexion Injuries

- See:
      - Anterior Subluxation & Wedge Fracture
      - Bilateral InterFacet Dislocation
      - Spinous Process Fracture (avulsion frx - "Clay Shoveler's Frx)
      - Flexion Tear Drop Fracture

- Discussion:
    - anterior subluxation is characteristic that more commonly results from a hyperflexion injury;
    - recognition of lateral column frx helps to determine mechanism of injury as hyperextension;
          - this mechanism is of clinical importance as hyperflexion injury may be treated with traction in extension;
          - treating hyperextension frx dislocation injury in extension may only compound the problem;
    - injuries resulting in anterolisthesis include:
          - unilateral facet subluxation (shows > 3-6 mm of anterior offset)
    - hyperflexion strain - results in less offset;
    - there are two flexion instability patterns in which the posterior & middle liagmentous complexes are ruptured but anterior complex is intact;
          - posterior element widening w/ subtle compression frx of vertebral body;
          - bilateral fracture dislocation