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Venous Malformations

- See: AV malformations

- Discussion:
    - venous malformations, although present at birth, often are not noticed until 1 year of age. They engorge when dependent, decompress when elevated, and enlarge with trauma, puberty, pregnancy, or use of oral contraceptives;
    - frequently confused with hemangiomas
    - present at birth
    - slow steady growth
    - do not involute
    - discrete and diffuse subtypes

- Diff Dx:
    - AV Malformations
    - Hemangioma

- Vascular testing
    - X-ray: calcification, adjacent bone changes
    - MRI: can distinguish between high flow (AVM) and low flow lesions (venous malformations);
    - Closed system venography
    - Radionuclide scanning;

- Treatment:
    - low-flow venous and lymphatic malformations can be treated either conservatively by compression garments or surgically by staged
              debulking, avoiding the need to return later to a previously scarred area;
    - surgery is complicated by bleeding or lymphatic leaks, hematoma or seroma, formation, skin necrosis, scarring, ulceration, contractures, and distention of channels in the same or adjacent areas

Distinguishing Soft-Tissue Hemangiomas From Vascular Malformations Using Technetium-Labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy.

Hemangiomas, vascular malformations, and lymphovenous malformations: classification and methods of treatment.

Intra-articular Venous Malformations of the Knee