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Ligaments of Humphrey and Wrisberg

- Discussion:
    - the ligaments of Humphrey and Wrisberg are meniscofemoral ligaments which run from the posterior horn of the
          lateral meniscus to the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle;
    - these ligaments are named based on their location in relation to the PCL;
          - the anterior meniscofemoral ligament is known as the ligament of Humphrey where as the posterior meniscofemoral
                 ligament is known as the ligament of Wrisberg;
    - in about 70 % of knees, there is either anterior meniscofemoral ligament of Humphrey or posterior meniscofemoral 
          ligament of Wrisberg;
          - latter is more common and is characterized by femoral origin merging w/ that of posterior cruciate ligament;
          - in 6% of knees, both ligaments will be present;
    - these meniscofemoral ligaments may play minor role as secondary restraints to posterior tibial translation after complete
          transection of the posterior cruciate ligament;
    - Humphrey ligament: (anterior meniscofemoral ligament);
          - is less than 1/3 the diameter of the PCL;
          - arises from the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, runs anterior to the to the PCL and inserts at the distal edge of the femoral PCL 
          - may be confused for the PCL during arthroscopy;
                 - in this situation, tug on the ligament while observing for motion of the lateral meniscus;
    - Wrisberg's ligament: (posterior meniscofemoral ligament);
          - usually larger than ligament of Humphrey (upto 1/2 the diameter of the PCL diameter);
          - extends from the posterior horn of lateral meniscus to medial femoral condyle

Anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of human meniscofemoral ligaments.

The menisco-femoral ligaments.

The meniscofemoral ligaments of the knee.

Meniscofemoral ligaments revisited. Anatomical study, age correlation and clinical implications 

The meniscofemoral ligaments: secondary restraints to the posterior drawer. Analysis of anteroposterior and rotary laxity in the intact and posterior-cruciate-deficient knee.