(see also: osteoarthritis of the knee)
- hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan found in synovial fluid & cartilage;
- complex sugar (not a protein)
- ancient molecule, highly conserved- identical
- acts as lubricant and shock absorber;
- acts as barrier permitting metabolites to pass thru it by diffusion but resists penetration by bacteria and other infectious agents;
- most hygroscopic molecule in the human body
presence in cartilage
- amount in cartilage is variable but usually represents less than 1% of total glycosaminoglycans;
- can be present in a free state, but it is usually found as a part of proteoglycan aggregates in cartilage;
- maintenance of physico-chemical characteristics of cartilage extracellular matrix
presence in synovial fluid »
- in joint fluid, hyaluronic acid is synthesized in synovial membrane;
- hyaluronate in synovial fluid is an extended glycosaminoglycan and a lubricating glycoprotein;
- sheer stiffness (determines elastic behavior) of synovial fluid is derived from the entanglement of these long-chain molecules and remains constant;
- may have an antiinflammatory effect and an antioxidative effect
- Effect of hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate on healing of full-thickness tendon lacerations in rabbits.
- Hyaluronans: is clinical effectiveness dependent on molecular weight?
- Granulomatous inflammation after Hylan G-F 20 viscosupplementation of the knee : a report of six cases.
- Increased Frequency of Acute Local Reaction to Intra-Articular Hylan GF-20 (Synvisc) in Patients Receiving More Than One Course of Treatment
- Hyaluronan Suppresses IL-1[beta]-induced Metalloproteinase Activity from Synovial Tissue.