- bilateral angular deformity: common and is most often physiologic;
- normal knee alignment progresses from 10-15 deg of varus at birth to maximal valgus angulation of 10-15 deg at age of 3-3.5 yrs;
- neutral alignment:
- neutral femoral-tibial alignment occurs at 12-14 months old;
- Greene: neutral femoral-tibial alignment at 14 months old;
- unilateral genu valgum: often occurs from pathological conditions;
- fibrous dysplasia
- Ollier's disease
- physeal injury
- idiopathic fibrous tether;
- physiologic genu valgum, or knock knees, develops next, w/ maximal deformity occurring at 3 years of age;
- gradual correction to ultimate alignment of slight genu valgum occurs by 9 years of age in the great majority of patients;
- Physiological bowing and tibia vara. The metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle in the measurement of bowleg deformities.
Normal limits of knee angle in white children--genu varum and genu valgum.
Use of the Metaphyseal-Diaphyseal Angle in the Evaluation of Bowed Legs.
Progressive genu valgum secondary to a fibrous tether at the distal aspect of the femur. A case report.