- at 4 to 6 gestational weeks, the hip joint develops from the cartilaginous anlage;
- by 7 weeks a cleft develops between precartilagenous cells which are programmed to form the femoral head and acetabulum;
- by 11 weeks, the hip joint formation is largely complete;
- femoral head is completely encircled by the acetabular cartilage;
- at late gestation, femoral head grows more rapidly than acetabular cartilage, so that at birth femoral head is less than 50% covered;
- at birth, acetabulum is at its most shallow and most lax inorder to maximize hip ROM which facilitates the delivery process;
- hip is uncontained in extension and adduction reflecting hip shallowness;
- after several weeks, acetabular cartilage develops faster than the femoral head, which allows progressively more coverage;
- normal occurance of hip shallowness and capsular laxity in the neonatal period are inital factors factors involved in DDH;
- Growth and development of the acetabulum in the normal child. Anatomical, histological, and roentgenographic studies.
- The fetal acetabulum. A histomorphometric study of acetabular anteversion and femoral head coverage.
- Morphometric study of the fetal development of the human hip joint: significance for congenital hip disease.
- Histological study of the fetal development of the human acetabulum and labrum: significance in congenital hip disease.
- Growth characteristics of the fetal ligament of the head of femur: significance in congenital hip disease.
- Acetabular Anteversion with CT in Supine, Simulated Standing, and Sitting Positions in a THA Patient Population
- Femoral Anteversion:
- femoral version is defined as the angular difference between axis of femoral neck and transcondylar axis of the knee;
- normal values:
- on average, femoral anteversion ranges from 30-40 deg at birth and decreases progressively throughout growth
to about 15 deg at skeletal maturation;
- in most adults, anteversion averages between 8 and 14 deg, w/ an average of 8 degrees in men and
14 degrees in women;
- note however, wide variation of femoral anteversion seen in multiple studies from 10-15 deg
retroversion to 30 deg anteversion;
- medial rotation of thigh in extension exceeding 70 deg is abnormal;
- Reider Test:
- prominence of the greater trochanter indicates axis of the femoral neck;
- noting the position of the patella, an accurate determination of the femoral anteversion can be determined;
- Femoral anteversion. A necessary angle or an evolutionary vestige?
Femoral anteversion in the hip: comparison of measurement by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and physical examination.
- Femoral anteversion
- Relationship between femoral anteversion and findings in hips with femoroacetabular impingement
- Femoral version of the general population: does "normal" vary by gender or ethnicity?
- Increased Anteversion of Press-fit Femoral Stems Compared With Anatomic Femur
- Femoral Version Abnormalities Significantly Outweigh Effect of Cam Impingement on Hip Internal Rotation
- Acetabular Anteversion: (see optimal acetabular anteversion for THR)
- Acetabular inclination and anteversion in infants using 3D MR imaging.
Femoral Version Abnormalities Significantly Outweigh Effect of Cam Impingement on Hip Internal Rotation