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Osteomyelitis


- Discussion:
    - predisposing conditions:
            - open fracture (traumatic tibia infections)
            - sickle cell anemia
            - septic arthritis
                   - in children, distinguishing between metaphyseal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis can be problematic;
            - diabetes   (see osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient); 
    - pathophysiology:
            - 
staph aureus osteomyelitis is unique in that there is an ability to survive and hide withing osteocytes;
                    - Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. A mechanism for the indolence of osteomyelitis.
                    - In vivo internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by embryonic chick osteoblasts. 
                    - Internalization of bacteria by osteoblasts in a patient with recurrent, long-term osteomyelitis. A case report. 
                    - Osteomyelitis and Intraosteoblastic. Staphylococcus aureus
    - classification:
            - hematogenous osteomyelitis 
            - cierny classification
            - chronic osteomyelitis 
            - tibia fracture infection
            - vertebral osteomyelitis
    - characteristics based on age:
            - osteomyelitis in infants
            - osteomyelitis in children

- Laboratory and Radiographic Workup for Osteomyelitis:
     -
radiographic findings of hematogenous osteo
             - ref: Images in Clinical Medicine. Bone within Bone — Chronic Osteomyelitis

- Traumatic Osteomyelitis:
    - antibiotic beads vs vancomycin in calcium sulfate
    - medications for osteomyelits 
    - treatment based on location:
             - spinal osteomyelitis 
             - tibial osteomyelitis 
             - femoral osteomyelitis following IM nailing 
             - osteomyelitis of the foot
    - debridement of sequestra 
    - soft tissue coverage:
             - The Muscle Flap in the Treatment of Chronic Lower Extremity Osteomyelitis: Results in Patients Over 5 Years After Treatment
             - Local muscle flaps in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis
                            



- References for Osteomyelitis:
 
      - Osteomyelitis  
      - Surgical Treatment Osteomyelitis

 The classic: The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larva of the blow fly). 1931.