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Classification of Seizures


- See: Anticonvulsants: 
- Partial Seizures: 
   - seizures beginning locally w/ specific sensory, motor or psychic aberration that reflects the affected part; 
   - partial seizures w/ elementary symptomatology (generally w/o impairment of consciousness); 
   - w/ motor symptoms (includes Jacksonian seizures) 
   - special sensory or somatosensory symtoms; 
   - w/ autonomic symptoms 
- Partial Seizures w/ Complex Symtpomatology: 
   - generally w/ impairment of consciousness  
   - temporal lobe; 
   - in most cases pt has 1 to 2 min loss of contact w/ surroundings; 
   - pt may at 1st stagger, perform automatic purposeless movements, and utter unitelligible sounds; 
   - mental confusion may last for another 1-2 min; 
   - status psychomotor epilepsy may occur, in which the affected subjects act in a slow, bewildered, & sometimes confused state for hours or rarely days; 
- Generalized Seizures: 
   - bilateral symmetrical and w/o local onset; 
   - affect both consciousness and motor function from the onset; 
- Absences (petit mal) 
   - these are brief generalized seizures manifested by a 10-30 sec loss of consciousness, w/ eye or muscle fluttering and with or without a loss of muscle tone;
   - patient suddenly stops any activity in which he is engaged and resumes it after the attack; 
   - petit mal are genetically determined & occur predominantly in children; 
- Causes of Seizures; 
   - Anti-Epileptic Medication Not at Therapeutic Levels; 
   - Alcoholic Withdrawl w/ Delurium Tremens; 
   - Demerol Overdose; Especially in Elderly post-op Patient; 
   - Benzodiazepine withdrawl; 
   - Penicillin at high doses; 
   - Theophylline toxicity; 
   - Thorazine; 
   - CNS: 
   - Tumor; 
   - Previous Stroke; 
   - Previous Head Injury; 
   - Meningitis/Encephalitis; 
   - Idiopathic Epilepsy; 
   - Endocrine: 
   - Hypoglycemia
   - Misc; 
   - Hyponatremia
   - Uremia; 
   - Hypocalcemia
   - CNS Vasculitis; 
   - Hypomagnesemia
   - Hypertensive Encephalopathy 
   - Pseudoseizure; 
   - Hypoxia/Hypercapnia