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Singh Index for Osteoporosis

- See: Osteoporosis and Hip Fractures

- Bony Trabeculae of the Proximal Femur:
     - Ward's Triangle
     - Greater Trochanteric Group
     - Secondary Compressive Group
     - Secondary Tensile Group
     - Principal Tensile Group
     - Principal Compressive Group  
           Changes in trabecular pattern of the upper end of the femur as an index of osteoporosis.

 - Grade VI:
        - all normal trabecular groups are visible
        - upper end of femur seems to be completely occupied by cancellous bone;
 - Grade V:
        - principal tensile & principal compressive trabeculae is accentuated;
        - Ward's triangle appears prominent;
 - Grade IV:
        - principal tensile trabeculae are markedly reduced but can still be traced from lateral cortex to upper part of the femoral neck;
        - ref: The influence of osteoporosis in femoral fracture healing time

 - Grade III:
        - there is a break in the continuity of the principal tensile trabeculae opposite the greater trochanter;
        - this grade indicates definite osteoporosis;
 - Grade II:
        - only principal compressive trabeculae stand out prominently;
        - remaining trabeculae have been essentially absorbed;
 - Grade I:
        - principal compressive trabeculae are markedly reduced in number and are no longer prominent

[Determination of strength of femoral neck in patients with hip fracture]

Evaluation of Singh index for assessment of osteoporosis using digital radiography

Fractures of the proximal femur: correlates of radiological evidence of osteoporosis

Evaluation of the Singh index for measuring osteoporosis

The Singh Index does not correlate with bone mineral density (BMD) measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)

Evaluation of the Singh index and femoral calcar width as epidemiological methods for measuring bone mass in the femoral neck