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Radiographs of the Lumbar Spine

- Discussion:
    - correlation w/ back pain:
         - traction spurs &/or severe disc space narrowing do correlate w/ pain;
         - spondylosis, Spondylolisthesis, & adult Scoliosis may or may not be associated with back pain;
          - there is little correlation between back pain and:
                 - lumbar lordosis
                 - transitional vertebra
                 - disc space narrowing
                 - disc vaccum sign, and claw spurs;

- Radiographs:
    - Oblique views are useful for defining SpondylolisthesisSpondylolysis, but are not useful in the facet syndrome and hypertrophic
          arthritis of the lumbar spine;
    - Ferguson view (20 deg caudocephalic anteroposterior x-ray) is of value in the diagnosis of the "far out syndrome"
         - 5th root compression produced by a large transverse process of 5th Lumbar vertebrae against the ala of the Sacrum;
    - angled caudal views localized to areas of concern may show evidence of facet or laminar pathology