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Intervertebral Discs


- See:
      - Diskitis
      - Herniated Disc in the Adult: (discussion and evaluation)
      - Herniated Disc in the Child:

- Structure:
    - Annulus fibrosus:
    - Cartilagenous End Plate:
    - Nucleus pulposus:

- Cervical Spine:
    - see cervical disc herniation:
    - in cervical region, discs are thicker anteriorly than posteriorly, circumstance contributing to the usual cervical curvature;
    - transverse diameter is sl < that of their associated vertebral bodies;
         - consequently, lower edge of one vertebra almost overlaps upper edge of the next, esp posterolaterally;

- Thoracic Spine:
    - in thoracic region, each disc is almost uniform in height, & thoracic curvature is due primarily to shapes of the vertebral bodies;
    - discs in lower thoracic region are distinctly thicker than those in upper region, circumstance that could account for greater mobility of 
           lower thoracic vertebral column;

- Lumbar Spine:
    - in lumbar region, discs are thicker anteriorly than posteriorly, maximally so in 5th disc, which contributes to lumbosacral angle;
    - the L4-L5 disc is the largest and therefore the most avascular intervertebral disc;
    - normal curvature of lumbar column is due in part to uneven thickness of discs, & in part to shapes of vertebral bodies;
    - low back pain:
          - radiographic studies:
                - MRI of disc herniation:
                - myelograms:
                - radiographs of the lumbar spine:
          - specific conditions:
                - annular tear
                - discogenic pain
                - lumbar disc herniation: (discussion and evaluation)
                      - diskectomy:

Proteoglycans of human infant intervertebral disc. Electron microscopic and biochemical studies.

Age changes in lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs.

Postdecompression lumbar instability.

Loads on the lumbar spine. Validation of a biomechanical analysis by measurements of intradiscal pressures and myoelectric signals.

Design of an intervertebral disc prosthesis.

The conservative treatment of sciatica.

Disc pressure measurements.

1991 Volvo Award in basic sciences. Collagen types around the cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate: an immunolocalization study.

Ingrowth of blood vessels in disc degeneration. Angiographic and histological studies of cadaveric spines.

How many days of bed rest for acute low back pain. A randomized clinical trial.

Back pain and sciatica

1988 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Facet joint injection in low back pain: A prospective statistical study.

The facet joint and its role in spine pain: Management with facet joint injections.

Intervertebral disc space inflammation in children.

Metaplastic proliferative fibrocartilage as an alternative concept to herniated intervertebral disk.