The Hip: Preservation, Replacement and Revision

Plantar Muscles of the Foot

- See: Innerv. Musc. Lower Limb

- Plantar muscles of the foot are divided into 4 layers;

    - 1st Layer:
         - first two layers originate from calcaneal tuberosity and the other two from the metatarsal shafts;
         - first subfascial layer consists (from lateral to medial) of the ADM, FDB, & abductor hallucis;
         - plantar fascia is comparable to palmar aponeurosis.
         - immediately deep to plantar aponeurosis, arising from calcaneus, & sending a tendon to each of lateral 4 toes is FDB, equivalent of FDS of upper limb.

    - 2nd Layer:
         - muscles of 2nd subfascial layer are (from medial to lateral) tendon of FHL, tendon of FDL, quadratus, & lumbricals
         - first two layers originate from the calcaneal tuberosity and the other two from the metatarsal shafts;
         - deep to FDL, quadratus, unique to foot, arises from the calcaneus & inserts on the lateral side of tendon of FDL passing obliquely across foot in the same plane.

    - 3rd Layer:
         - in 3rd subfascial layer are FDM, adductor hallucis, & FHB;
         - flexor hallucis brevis splits into medial & lateral tendons, which are inserted into corresponding sides of proximal phalanx of great toe;

    - 4th Layer:
         - muscles of fourth layer are unipennate plantar & bipennate dorsal interossei, as well as peroneus longus & tibialis posterior;
         - lumbricals

Surgical Anatomy of the foot.

Tendon laceration in the foot

Original Text by Clifford R. Wheeless, III, MD.

Last updated by Data Trace Staff on Thursday, October 4, 2012 5:13 pm