- pulmonary contussion:
- cardiac enzymes
- blunt cardiac trauma
- defined as cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias requiring treatment, or structural cardiac abnormalities directly related to the cardiac trauma;
- Commotio Cordis:
- catastrophic condition (rare) that is caused by blunt chest trauma
- causes cardiac fibrillation and is fatal unless immediate defibrillation is performed;
- Commotio cordis. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:236-237.
- Commotio Cordis. New Engl J Med 2010;362(23):917-927
- Teen Dies After Being Hit By Baseball
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
- may result in deadly conduction abnormalities and is an absolute contraindication to vigorous exercise;
- causes about 30-50% of sudden-death cases occurring in young athletes;
- HCM phenotype becomes evident by age 13 to 14 years
- history of chest pain or syncope in the athlete
- family history of early cardiac death
- dectection of heart murmur:
- listen for murmurs in the supine and standing positions to identify murmurs from dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction (standing intensifies
a HCM murmur by decreasing cardiac venous return);
- cardiac echo:
- establishes the diagnosis
- Physiologic limits of left ventrical hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete's heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am College Cardiol. 2002;40:1431-1436.
- Development and progression of left ventrical hypertrophy in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:610-614.
- Risk of sudden cardiac death in young athletes: which screening strategies are appropriate?
- Long QT Syndrome: (genetic arrhythmia syndrome)
- characterized by abnormal QT interval on EKG, and can lead to V fib and death;
- manifests as palpitations (skipped heart beats), presyncope, syncope, and cardiac arrest
- ref: Long-QT Syndrome
- Questions: that every parent should consider
- Is there any ? syncope (fainting with exertion) , chest pain, shortness of breath with exercise, elevated blood pressure, heart murmur, family history or severe early heart disease
- Sports Medicine Update (2002)
- The Preparticipation Athletic Evaluation
- CPR And External Defibrillator Training May Decrease Adolescent Sports-related Deaths
A prospective evaluation of myocardial contusion: correlation of significant arrhythmias and cardiac output with CPK-MB measurements.
Early detection of myocardial contusion and its complications in patients with blunt trauma.
The utility of cardiac evaluation in the hemodynamically stable patient with suspected myocardial contusion.
A plea for sensible management of myocardial contusion.
Cardiac contusion. The effect on operative management of the patient with trauma injuries.
Sternal fractures: associated injuries and management.
Sternal fractures: a retrospective analysis of 272 cases.
Significance of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma.
The clinical significance of myocardial contusion.
Clinically Significant Blunt Cardiac Trauma: Role of Serum Troponin Levels Combined with Electrocardiographic Findings.
Outcomes in Athletes with Marked ECG Repolarization Abnormalities