- Epiphyseal Artery
- Metaphyseal Artery
- Nutrient Artery
- forms an extensive network of vessels covers entire length of the bone shaft;
- periosteal vessels send small branches thru minute channels in cortex to supply about outer 1/3 of cortex;
- in children, while periosteum is actively engaged in circumferential bone growth, blood supply in this area is much more abundant than it is in adult;
- Significance of Periosteal Vessels in Adults:
- obliteration of periosteal circulation by stripping periosteum from shaft may result in death of osteocytes
in outer one quarter or less;
- provided that remaining circulation is intact, such periosteal stripping causes little harm;
- vascular plexus lies on the outer surface of the periosteum, which anastomoses with adjacent skeletal muscles;
- in cases in which the nutrient artery of muscle has been damaged, then periosteal vessels may temporarily serve as the primary blood supply;
- periosteal stripping will maintain connections between the periosteum and overlying muscles, where as dissection above the periosteum will disrupts these connections and may causes ischemia of overlying soft tissues
The periosteum. Part 1: Anatomy, histology and molecular biology.
Original Text by Clifford R. Wheeless, III, MD.