The Hip: Preservation, Replacement and Revision

Frontal Pins for Halo Fixator



- Technique:
    - centered in groove at upper margin of eyebrows, between supraciliary ridge and the frontal prominences;
    - saggitally, fromt pins should be placed just superiorly to outer half of eyebrows, to avoid the supraorbital nerve and vessels;
           - placed too inferiorly, the pins might encroch on the orbit;
    - they should be placed as close to midline of eyebrow as possible, as thickest mass of bone is central;
           - placed too medially, however, the pins might encroach on the frontal sinus;
    - some surgeons place the pins lateral to the eyebrows under hairline, to avoid scarring;
           - this position may cause 3 problems
           - since pins penetrates temporalis muscle, chewing may be uncomfortable;
           - temporal bone is thin in this area & pentration or loosening may occur;
           - since posterior pins are placed opposite anterior pins, this lateral position causes posterior pins to be very close to the anterior pins, 
                   and mult-plane stability is decrease



Original Text by Clifford R. Wheeless, III, MD.

Last updated by Data Trace Staff on Thursday, December 22, 2011 11:55 am