- References:


       - testosterone / estrogen:

                 Testosterone levels increase in association with recovery from acute fracture in men.
                 Evaluating the affect and reversibility of opioid-induced androgen deficiency in an orthopaedic animal fracture model.     
                 Testosterone delivered with a scaffold is as effective as BMP in promoting the repair of defect of femoral bone in mice.       
                 Male osteoporosis and androgenic therapy: from testosterone to SARMs
                 Testosterone use in men and its effects on bone health. A review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.
                 A study of male patients with forearm fracture in Northern Ireland.
                 Supraphysiological testosterone prevents bone loss and augments bone strength in gonadectomized male and female rats.
                 Therapy effects of testosterone on the recovery of bone defects
                 Estrone sulfate is a major source of local estrogen formation in human bone
                 Direct modulation of osteoblastic activity with estrogen.
                 Callus formation is related to ratios of estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing

        - ecdysterone:
               - Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?
               - Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.
               - 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced BMP-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation through ERK pathway in human periodontal ligament stem cells.
               - Beta-ecdysone has bone protective but no estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats.
               - Continuous infusion of 20-hydroxyecdysone increased mass of triceps brachii in C57BL/6 mice.
               - Ecdysteroids elicit a rapid Ca2+ flux leading to Akt activation and increased protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells.
               - 20-Hydroxyecdysone increases fiber size in a muscle-specific fashion in rat.
               - Phytoecdysteroids increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells.
               - Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats
               - b-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes



Original Text by Clifford R. Wheeless, III, MD.

Last updated by Data Trace Staff on Monday, October 12, 2015 11:30 am